DNA Testing

DNA testing is a process used in the identification of one person from another. It involves the collection of a sample and performing different types of tests on them.  In order to understand the procedure well, one need to understand what DNA is, as this forms the basis of the tests.

What is DNA

DNA, also known as the Deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in all living organisms such as humans. All the cells in a human body contain the same DNA, which is located in the nucleus of the cell or in the mitochondria, in small amounts.   The information in this hereditary material is stored as a code consisting of four chemical bases: Adenine, coded as A, Guanine as G, Cytosine as C and thymine as T. The DNA in the human body comes with more than 3 billion bases, whose sequence or order determining the information for not only building but also maintaining an organism.

These DNA bases pair with each other, with A pairing with T and C with G to form the base pairs. The same bases are attached to two molecules- sugar and phosphate- and together, they are called nucleotide. These nucleotides are then arranged in two long strands, which form a double helix with a shape similar to a ladder, with the base pairs forming the rungs and the phosphate and sugar molecules forming the vertical sidepieces. One important thing about the DNA is that it can make copies of itself- a critical process when it comes to cell division since all the cells must have the same copy of the DNA.

DNA Testing

DNA testing has been used in different areas. For starters, it has been used in determining family relations. Many people are now visiting centers to carry paternity test, so that they can  establish if they have any connection between with the children. Some of the children are also able to determine of they are related to their brothers and sisters by carrying out these tests. With genetic testing ancestry, the clients are able to form family relationships, and know establish their ancestry. It has also helped in the settlement of a number of immigration disputes that involve proving family relationships.

Apart from that, it has also been used in genetic testing. This are the tests carried out to identify genetic disorders in a person.  These tests are carried out for different reasons such as finding out if there are any genetic diseases in an unborn child. Another reason is to find out if a person is carrying a gene for a disease and if it might be passed on to their children. it can also be used to test for genetic diseases in adults before the symptoms start appearing,  or confirming a diagnosis in a person who already has the symptoms of the disease.

The decision to undergo genetic testing depends on specific person. Some of them want to find out if the disease they have can be prevented or cured. While some of the conditions cannot be treated, the people will be in a position to make the necessary life decisions, including insurance cover and career choice, among others. They are advised to visit a genetic counselor so that they can be given information about the testing.

DNA testing has also been applied in forensics to identify suspects and victims, as well as to exonerate the suspects of any crime. This has been useful in solving  quite a number of cases including rape, murder,  kidnapping and  others.  Most of the time, the DNA testing has been used with a wide variety of features to help in establishing strong evidence in these forensic cases.

Copyright © 2011-2015 GeneticTools.org | Privacy Policy